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  1. Program bisar 30
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  79. Loads Contains user defined Load configurations, which can be saved and retrieved when preparing input for a certain Project. A single set of input is defined as a system. The actual units and their prefixes for input and output in BISAR 3.
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  81. The next pages contain the detailed output per selected position one position per page. The system consists of horizontal layers of uniform thickness resting on a semi-infinite base or half space. The uniaxial displacements are respectively denoted as UX, UY and UZ.
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  83. BISAR3 - When using the Table option a following window is displayed, in which the data is selected and ready for Copy to Clipboard.
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  85. Neither the whole nor any part of this document may be disclosed to any third party without the prior written consent of Shell International Oil Products B. The copyright of this document is vested in Shell International Oil Products B. Neither the whole nor any part of this document may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, reprographic, recording or otherwise without the prior written consent of the copyright owner. Bitumen Business Group May 1998 Contents 1. Main Principles of the BISAR Program 4 3. System Requirements 6 4. Use of BISAR 3. File and Database Management 14 Editing existing Projects input data 14 Deleting Input Data 16 Accessing and Deleting Previous Calculations 17 Database Maintenance 17 Saving Project Input and Calculations 18 8. Working with Tables 19 9. Printing in BISAR 3. Performing BISAR Calculations 22 10. Error Messages 41 Appendix 1 42 BISAR Calculations with Slip between Layers 42 A1. Introduction The Windows computer program BISAR 3. The program is suitable for Windows 3. In the early 1970s, Shell Research developed the BISAR mainframe computer program1, which was used in drawing the design charts of the Shell Pavement Design Manual issued in 1978. An abbreviated version of the BISAR program for use on a personal computer2 was issued in 1987 as BISAR-PC Release R 1. A PC version comprising all extensive mainframe options was not feasible, because of the lengthy calculations at that time, The PC version was issued to facilitate the use of the design charts and to avoid laborious interpolations. To avoid these limitations, the DOS program BISAR-PC 2. With the release of BISAR 3. In addition to the calculation of stresses and strains BISAR 3. This offers the opportunity to calculate comprehensive stress and strain profiles throughout the structure for a variety of loading patterns, including air-crafts. In this way, BISAR 3. To facilitate SPDM related calculations the present BISAR 3. It further includes automatic calculation of the layer number and facilitates selection of positions at a layer interface. Main Principles of the BISAR Program With the BISAR program, stresses, strains and displacements can be calculated in an elastic multi-layer system which is defined by the following configuration and material behaviour: 1. The system consists of horizontal layers of uniform thickness resting on a semi-infinite base or half space. The layers extend infinitely in horizontal directions. The material of each layer is homogeneous and isotropic. The materials are elastic and have a linear stress-strain relationship. The system is loaded on top of the structure by one or more circular loads, with a uniform stress distribution over the loaded area. The centre of the loads and the positions at which stresses, strains and displacements have to be calculated are given as co-ordinates in a fixed Cartesian co-ordinate system. The actual calculations to determine the response of a particular load in terms of stresses, strains and displacements are, however, carried out within a local cylindrical co-ordinate system having the centre of the load as origin. The effect of the simultaneous action of various loads is the sum of the effects due to the action of each separate load. This summation is carried out after transformation of the results with respect to the underlying Cartesian co-ordinate system. The program calculates the eigen values and eigen vectors of the stress and strain tensors, the principal stresses and strains and the corresponding principal directions. The maximum and minimum principal values represent the maximum and minimum normal stresses and strains. The principal directions denote the normals of the planes through the point under consideration that are free of shear stresses and strains. The maximum shear stresses and strains, acting in planes bisecting the principal directions are equal to half the difference between these principal values. BISAR may account for slip between layers. This is incorporated through a shear spring compliance. The standard calculations within BISAR-PC are done with full friction between all the layers. The method to make calculations assuming full or partial slip between all or some of the layers is explained in Appendix 1. BISAR does not properly account for that boundary condition and calculated results may be erroneous. In such cases it is recommended to select a position just below the surface of the structure. A full description of the fundamentals behind the BISAR program is given in the user guide of the first program External Report AMSR. Essential parts of this document remain available to interested parties for reference to the theoretical basis of the elastic multi-layer model. System Requirements The minimum requirements for the computer system to run BISAR 3. On request it is available on two high density diskettes of 1. Pressing the OK button starts the process of installing the BISAR 3. As files are installed, a progress meter is updated as shown below: Page 7 Installation is complete when the following window is displayed: 4. Pressing the OK button starts the process of installing the BISAR 3. As files are installed, a progress meter is updated as shown below: When the following screen is displayed, remove DISK 1 and replace it with DISK 2 before pressing the OK button. Page 9 Installation is complete when the following window is displayed: Installation Troubleshooting If installation appears to be extremely slow, or if problems are encountered as installation progresses, files may be manually copied to your hard disk and installed from there. To do this, follow the instructions below. Once installation has completed, the temporary directory may be removed. Network Installation Although BISAR 3. Use of BISAR 3. A single set of input is defined as a system. Within each system the program can deal with ten layers and ten circular loads. The use of more systems in one BISAR project facilitates studies into the effect of certain parameters e. The way to indicate the positions the co-ordinates in the layer structure where calculation results are asked has been improved. It is no longer necessary to provide the layer number, which is now calculated automatically from the Z-co-ordinate. For positions at the interface between two layers, the program offers the opportunity to select a specific layer or to choose for calculating the results at the same position in both layers. Stresses, strains and displacements can usually be calculated at ten positions per system. This number is extended when interface positions are selected for both layers. To facilitate SPDM related calculations the present BISAR 3. The output of BISAR 3. The units with their prefixes are displayed in the columns of the input screens. In contrast to previous versions BISAR Mainframe and BISARPC 2. The actual units and their prefixes for input and output in BISAR 3. The program does not contain a module for interpretation of results and comparisons with specific material properties e. Such interpretation is possible with the SPDM 3. To analyse stress and strain profiles for user defined structures and loading patterns it is recommended to use the BISAR 3. Copy and paste to a graphics program can be used to find e. New is used to set-up a new project while Open is used to edit input of already existing projects. These options are explained in section 10 of this manual. Previous Calculations is used to access the reports output of previous projects. Compact database and Repair Database are used to maintain the internal BISAR databases see section 7 Exit closes the application. Copy From is used to copy input data from system to system. Results is used to start the calculations. For details using Help, refer to your Windows Manual on Help. File and Database Management Input and output reports are stored in an internal BISAR 3. In this way, the user is not troubled with the management of separate input and output files on his computer via the File Manager or the Windows Explorer. This set-up implies that all file management has to be done within the BISAR program. It allows the use of narrative descriptions long names for the various database parts. The structure of the internal database is as follows: Project Contains input data Loads, Layers and Positions for a certain Project maximum 10 Systems. Previous Calculations Contains input and output for a certain Project Block Report, Detailed Report, Block Table, Detailed Table. Loads Contains user defined Load configurations, which can be saved and retrieved when preparing input for a certain Project. Positions Contains user defined Positions, which can be saved and retrieved when preparing input for a certain Project. Editing existing Projects input data To edit existing input data in order to define a new Project is done via Project, Open from the main BISAR window: Page 14 resulting in display of a window like to select a certain project for editing e. Note that this option is only available when all projects are closed. Database Maintenance Under certain circumstances e. If this occurs then the following message will be displayed when attempting to open or save projects: Selecting the Repair Database option will remove any corruption of data which might have occurred and BISAR 3. When projects and results are deleted from the BISAR 3. The Compact Database option manually reclaims this space. Please note that if used infrequently, database compaction can take one or two minutes to complete. Page 17 Saving Project Input and Calculations Project Input can be saved at any time through use of the Project menu options: either via Save or via Save as. Working with Tables Whenever the Block Table or Detailed Table button is selected from the Calculated Data window is selected, a table of calculated results is displayed. The following example shows a Block Table: The Block or Detailed Table provides a convenient way to view a large number of results up to 2000. Horizontal and vertical scroll bars will appear, if necessary, to allow navigation when more results have been calculated than can be displayed in the Table window. The Table is initially displayed with all results selected highlighted. Pressing the Copy to Clipboard button will copy the selected results to the clipboard so that they may be pasted into another application. For example, copying the results and pasting them into a spreadsheet application would allow the graphing of results etc. If too many results are selected for copying, the following message will be displayed: If the above error message appears, it is still possible to copy all results to another application by copying the results in a number of smaller selections. To copy a smaller selection, use the mouse to point to the first required cell and drag to the last required cell the cells will appear highlighted. Now use the Copy to Clipboard option to copy the selected cells. It is possible to select whole columns of results by clicking on the heading for the desired column. The Block Table and Detailed Table options are also available from Previous Calculations. Printing in BISAR 3. The action of those buttons is as follows: Moves you to the first page of the report Moves you to the previous page Moves you to the next page Moves you to the last page of the report Cancels page formatting. For long reports, page formatting may take a few moments. If you want to stop the page formatting, press this button. Previews the page to be printed Sends your report to the printer NOTE: You can also use the keyboard to move around in the print window. NOTE: You can use the scroll bars to move around individual pages of the report. Page 20 Print Preview The magnifying glass button is the print preview button. This button lets you see each page in its entirety, as it will print. Printing to the printer To send the displayed report to the printer, click the printer button. A screen similar to the following will be displayed. Note that BISAR 3. To select a different printer in Windows 3. To select a different printer in Windows 95, use the printers option in My Computer. The print range option allows you to print all or just part of your report. Select ALL to print the entire report or specify a page range for a partial report. The default number of copies printed is 1, however this may be changed by specifying a different number in the copies box. The Collate Copies option determines how multiple copies of a report are printed. To print multiple copies of a multiple page report in the order 1,1,1,2,2,2,3,3,3, etc. To print multiple copies of a multiple page report in the order 1,2,3... Note that certain printers do not respond to this collating option and will always print a report in the order 1,2,3…,1,2,3…, etc. Performing BISAR Calculations 10. The default number of Systems maximum 10 is set at 1. The input panels for a certain system are made active via Tabs. The System Description box offers the possibility to give narrative details. Per system the input panels for Loads, Layers and Positions can be made active. The example below shows typical input data for a Super Single Wheel in the Load and Radius mode next page. Page 23 Corresponding structure data have to be given in the Layer panel e. The number of layers can be varied between 1 and 10. The checkbox Full Friction Between Layers is active as default. BISAR offers the opportunity to study the effect of full and partial slip between certain layers in the structure via the so called Shear Spring Compliance parameter. The use of this option is explained in section 10. The next step is to provide the co-ordinates of Positions in the structure where output is desired. It is not possible to select positions without defining the structure first. The Position panel below shows by way of example the co-ordinates below the centre of the load at the top of the surface, in the middle of the top layer, the interface between layer 1 and 2, a position in layer 2 and the interface between layer 2 and 3. With this new version of BISAR it is no longer required to input the layer number. This number is now automatically calculated and displayed when typing the Z - co-ordinate of the position. A proper choice of the layer number is very important because at the interface discontinuities may occur. The panel offers the possibility to select the desired layer number or to choose both by clicking the Select Layer button e. In that case more system indicators become available e. In many cases, the user would define new positions in order to obtain extended stress and strain profiles for a given load configuration and a certain layer structure. The Block output compiles the main results. The Report function prepares for browsing and printing. When using the Table option a following window is displayed, in which the data is selected and ready for Copy to Clipboard. This option gives the opportunity to copy and paste data to any other Windows application. Page 28 Closing the Table and the Calculated Data window results in the display of After confirmation via Yes the calculation results are saved under the same name as the project input and may be reassessed through use of the Previous Calculations options in the Project menu. Undo All Changes on the Edit menu will cancel all changes since the last time Project Input was saved. Details on file management items as Saving are described in section 7. Within the SPDM package the use of BISAR is limited with respect to the number of layers and the number of positions. Use of the new BISAR Standard Dual Wheel Arrangements offers the possibility to analyse stress and strain profiles in much more detail and to study more complex structures up to ten layers, including e. The Standard Dual Wheel load configuration can be directly chosen by clicking the Use Standard Dual Wheel checkbox and confirming Page 30 After defining a certain layer structure e. This facility accommodates structures up to five layers. For structures with more layers, the automatic section of positions will apply to the top of the undermost layer and the bottom of the four top layers. It is of course possible to extend the number of positions when the load configuration and the layer structure is copied to a new system within the project. One of the possibilities of BISAR is the capability to account for full or partial slip. This type of calculation is made with aid of the shear spring compliance. Detailed information on the theoretical background and the use of the shear spring compliance parameter is given in Appendix 1. As explained in Appendix 1 this value approximates full slip. The corresponding load itself is defined in the Loads input screen: Page 33 The user can choose between input of the standard and reduced shear spring compliance in the Layers input screen. There is an automatic link between the two compliance modes. In this Block Report, the input and output for one system is compiled on one page. The output comprises the normal stresses and strains and uniaxial displacements at each selected position in the structure. These normal stresses and strains are denoted by XX, YY, ZZ according to the directions in the fixed Cartesian co-ordinate system. The uniaxial displacements are respectively denoted as UX, UY and UZ. Page 35 BISAR 3. The first page of a System contains the input layer structure and load configuration. The next pages contain the detailed output per selected position one position per page. In contrast to previous versions BISAR Mainframe and BISAR-PC 2. The actual BISAR calculations to calculate the response of a load in terms of resulting stresses, strains and displacements at a certain position are carried out within a local cylindrical coordinate system see section 2 and Appendix 2. The following characteristics are given for each position - the X, Y and Z - co-ordinates in the fixed Cartesian co-ordinate system - the distance between load-axis and position - the angle θ theta as an indirect measure for the radial direction of the position for the individual combination of load and position see Appendix 2 - for each load the displacements, normal and shear stresses and strains expressed in directions of the local cylindrical co-ordinate system with the centre of the load as origin - the combined action of all the loads is expressed in terms of the fixed Cartesian coordinate system - total stresses, strains and displacements - principal values and directions of total stresses and strains. The local cylindrical co-ordinate system is chosen such that - the origin is at the centre of the load at the surface of the layered structure - the vertical direction is parallel to the Z-axis of the fixed Cartesian system - the radial direction and the tangential direction are in a horizontal plane perpendicular to the vertical direction Fixed XYZ-system Local cylindrical system normal σ XX O σ O' r XY σrη shear Y Y' Z η X shear X' σrr normal Z' Figure 1: Outline of directions of normal and shear stresses within both coordinate systems. The meaning of various notations for stresses and similar for strains is illustrated in Figure 1, which contains examples of the notation for type and direction of normal and shear stress within the fixed Cartesian co-ordinate system and a local cylindrical co-ordinate system. Page 38 BISAR 3. Load Axis m Theta ° 0. Radial Tangential Vertical Rad. Error Messages The following error messages apply: Entry of Loads in Stress and Load Mode Field Vertical Stress Vertical Load X Coordinate Y Coordinate Horizontal Stress Shear Direction Actual Error Message The Vertical Stress Value must be greater than 0 and less than 10000 The Vertical Load Value must be greater than 0 and less than 10000 The X Coordinate Value should be between -99. This type of calculation is made with aid of the shear spring compliance, a parameter which should not be confused with the well-known friction coefficient. Use of this parameters would require BISAR to be able to cope with discontinuities step functions. The mathematics behind the BISAR model, however, assumes continuous relations for all its parameters. To solve this problem, the designers of BISAR have developed the concept of shear spring compliance. In this approach the interface between two horizontal pavement layers is represented by an infinite thin inter-layer of which the strength is described by means of a spring compliance. Physically it assumes that the shear stresses at the interface cause a relative horizontal displacement of the two layers, which is proportional to the stresses acting at the interface. The value of α, called interface friction, used in all computations is derived from the input either AK or ALK. The friction parameter α should not be considered as a classic friction coefficient. The interface friction parameter depends on the diameter of the applied load and is therefore not a pure material property. Within calculations with loads of different diameters, different values for α apply for one ALK or AK value as physical characteristic for a specific layer interface. It is Page 42 therefore formally not correct to express a percentage of slip as a proportion of the spring compliance for full slip. On the other hand, it remains difficult to assign or justify a specific value for AK ALK. Therefore, it is recommended to always perform a series of calculations with different values for ALK as a kind of sensitivity analysis. E Page 43 Appendix 2 The radial direction within fixed and local co-ordinate systems Fixed XYZ-system Local cylindrical system P' P' r L L O X P Θ O' P Y Z Figure 2-1 L xL,yL,0 P' xP,yP,0 P xP,yP,zP Z' L 0,0,0 P' r,Θ,0 P r,Θ,zP Outline of coordinate systems within BISAR. The input for BISAR is expressed in terms of a fixed Cartesian co-ordinate system X,Y,Z. The actual BISAR calculations, however, to determine the response of a load at a certain position in terms of resulting stresses, strains and displacements are carried out in a local cylindrical coordinate system r,θ,z for each load. An outline of both systems is given in Figure 2-1. L is the centre of a load in the X-Y plane at the top of the structure and is the origin of the local cylindrical system. Y Tangential direction Θ yP yL O Figure 2-2 Radial direction L xL η r P' x ,y ,0 P P r,Θ,0 xP X Outline of the directions in the cylindrical coordinate system for a specific combination of load and position loading without shear force. This appendix explains the relation between the radial direction with respect to the fixed Cartesian Co-ordinate system defined by the user and the radial direction used and reported by BISAR. The situation in case of vertical loading, without applying any shear force, is outlined in Figure 2-2. The radial direction for a load and position combination with respect to the fixed Cartesian Coordinate system is given by the internal BISAR value η, the angle between the intersection line of position and the centre of the load with the positive X-axis. Y Tangential direction η yP yL 0 Figure 2-3 Radial direction L xL η Θ P' x ,y ,0 r P P r,Θ,0 Shear direction Ψ xP X Outline of the directions in the cylindrical coordinate system for a specific combination of load and position loading with shear force. When applying a horizontal shear force on the loading, the situation is more complex, because the value of θ in the output now also depends on the direction of the horizontal loading. The situation is illustrated in Figure 2-3. The radial direction angle θ in the Detailed Report used to perform the calculations within the local cylindrical co-ordinate system is now taken with respect to the direction of the shear force. This direction is indicated by ψ, the angle between the shear direction and the positive X-axis input in the load screen. In other words, the value for θ varies with varying shear direction, while from a designers point of view the radial direction for a specific combination of load and position does not change. Korswagen, Computer Program BISAR, Layered systems under nornal and tangential surface loads, AMSR. Stapel, Development of Pavement Design Program for Use on Personal Computer, Paper presented at the 5th Conference of Asphalt Pavements for Southern Africa, Swaziland, 5th-9th June 1989. SITE To ensure the functioning of the site, we use cookies. We share information about your activities on the site with our partners and Google partners: social networks and companies engaged in advertising and web analytics. For more information, see the and. Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.
  86. With this new version of BISAR it is no longer required to input the layer number. The Table is initially displayed with all results selected highlighted. This number is now automatically calculated and displayed when typing the Z - co-ordinate of the position. The Collate Copies option determines how multiple copies of a report are printed. Note that certain printers do not respond to this collating option and will always print a report in the order 1,2,3…,1,2,3…, etc. The structure of the internal database is as follows: Project Contains input data Loads, Layers and Elements for a certain Project maximum 10 Systems. System Requirements The minimum requirements for the computer system to run BISAR 3.
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